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Chicken tikka masala is a dish of chunks of roasted marinated chicken (chicken tikka) in a spiced curry sauce. The sauce is usually creamy and orange-coloured. There are multiple claims to its place of origin such as the Indian subcontinent and the United Kingdom. It is among the United Kingdom's most popular dishes.[1]

CompositionEdit

Chicken tikka masala is chicken tikka (chunks of chicken marinated in spices and yogurt) that is then baked in a tandoor oven, and served in a masala (spice mixture) sauce.[2] A tomato and coriander sauce is common, but no recipe for chicken tikka masala is standard; a survey found that of 48 different recipes, the only common ingredient was chicken.[3][4] The sauce usually includes tomatoes (frequently as purée), cream, coconut cream and spices. The sauce and chicken pieces may be coloured orange using foodstuffs such as turmeric, paprika, tomato purée or with food dye. The dish shares some similarity with butter chicken, both in the method of creation and appearance.

VariantsEdit

Other tikka masala dishes replace chicken with lamb, fish, or paneer.

OriginsEdit

The origin of the dish is not certain. Some trace the origins of the dish to the South Asian community in Britain. The Multicultural Handbook of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics credits its creation to Bangladeshi migrant chefs in the 1960s, after migrating from what was then East Pakistan (now Bangladesh). At the time, most of Britain's Indian restaurants were owned and run by Bangladeshi chefs, who developed and served a number of new inauthentic "Indian" dishes, including chicken tikka masala.[5] Historians of ethnic food Peter and Colleen Grove discuss various origin-claims of chicken tikka masala, concluding that the dish "was most certainly invented in Britain, probably by a Bangladeshi chef".[6] They suggest that "the shape of things to come may have been a recipe for Shahi Chicken Masala in Mrs Balbir Singh’s Indian Cookery published in 1961".[6]

Another explanation is that it originated in an Indian restaurant in Glasgow, Scotland.[7][2] This version recounts how a Pakistani chef, Ali Ahmed Aslam, proprietor of the Shish Mahal restaurant in the west end of Glasgow, invented chicken tikka masala by improvising a sauce made from yogurt, cream, and spices.[8][9] In 2013, his son Asif Ali told the story of its invention in 1971 to the BBC's Hairy Bikers TV cookery programme:[10]

On a typical dark, wet Glasgow night, a bus driver coming off shift came in and ordered a chicken curry. He sent it back to the waiter saying it's dry. At the time, Dad had an ulcer and was enjoying a plate of tomato soup. So he said why not put some tomato soup into the curry with some spices. They sent it back to the table and the bus driver absolutely loved it. He and his friends came back again and again and we put it on the menu.[10]

In July 2009, then British Member of Parliament Mohammad Sarwar tabled an Early Day Motion in the House of Commons asking that Parliament support a campaign for Glasgow to be given European Union protected geographical status for chicken tikka masala.[11] The motion was not chosen for debate, nor did Sarwar speak on this subject in Parliament.[12][13]

Rahul Verma, a food critic who writes for The Hindu,[14] said he first tasted the dish in 1971 and that its origins were in Punjab, India. He said "It's basically a Punjabi dish not more than 40–50 years old and must be an accidental discovery which has had periodical improvisations".[15][7]

PopularityEdit

In 2001, British Foreign Secretary Robin Cook mentioned the dish in a speech acclaiming the benefits of Britain's multiculturalism, declaring:

Chicken tikka masala is now a true British national dish, not only because it is the most popular, but because it is a perfect illustration of the way Britain absorbs and adapts external influences. Chicken tikka is an Indian dish. The masala sauce was added to satisfy the desire of British people to have their meat served in gravy."[1][16][17][18]

Chicken tikka masala is served in restaurants around the world,[19][20] including Indian restaurants in Britain and North America. According to a 2012 survey of 2,000 people in Britain, it is the country's second-most popular foreign dish to cook, after Chinese stir fry. It was previously Britain's most popular foreign dish to cook, up until it was overtaken by stir-fry in 2012.[21][22]

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See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 "Robin Cook's chicken tikka masala speech: Extracts from a speech by the foreign secretary to the Social Market Foundation in London". The Guardian. 19 April 2001. Archived from the original. You must specify the date the archive was made using the |archivedate= parameter. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2001/apr/19/race.britishidentity. Ritrīven on --. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 Lloyd, J and Mitchinson, J. The Book of General Ignorance. Faber & Faber, 2006.
  3. (2010) A Cultural Politics of Curry in "Hybrid Cultures, Nervous States: Britain and Germany in a (post)colonial World". Amsterdam: Rodopi BV, 172. ISBN 9789042032286. Retrieved on 3 June 2014. 
  4. (2011) Food Britannia. Random House, 177. ISBN 978-1847946232. Retrieved on 3 June 2014. 
  5. (2012) Multicultural Handbook of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics. John Wiley & Sons, 74. ISBN 9781405173582. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 Grove, Peter; Grove, Colleen (2008). "Is It or Isn't It? (The Chicken Tikka Masala Story)". Grove Publications. Archived from the original on 27 November 2016. https://web.archive.org/web/20161127225804/http://www.menumagazine.co.uk/book/tikkamasala.html. Ritrīven on 19 May 2017. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 "From Charles Mackintosh's waterproof to Dolly the sheep: 43 innovations Scotland has given the world". The Independent. 30 December 2016. Archived from the original. You must specify the date the archive was made using the |archivedate= parameter. https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/charles-mackintosh-chemist-waterproof-google-doodle-scotland-inventions-innovation-bicycles-a7499911.html. Ritrīven on --. 
  8. "Glasgow 'invented' Tikka Masala". BBC. 21 July 2009. Archived from the original. You must specify the date the archive was made using the |archivedate= parameter. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/scotland/glasgow_and_west/8161812.stm. Ritrīven on 19 May 2017. 
  9. Godeau, Lucie (2 August 2009). "Chicken tikka masala claims its origins in Scotland". Sydney Morning Herald. Agence France Presse. Archived from the original. You must specify the date the archive was made using the |archivedate= parameter. http://www.smh.com.au//breaking-news-world/chicken-tikka-masala-claims-its-origins-in-scotland-20090802-e5mr.html. Ritrīven on 19 May 2017. 
  10. 10.0 10.1 BBC Hairy Bikers' Best of British Series 2: 5. Food and the Empire. First shown: 6.30pm 5 April 2013
  11. "UK Parliament Early Day Motions 2008-2009". Archived from the original. You must specify the date the archive was made using the |archivedate= parameter. http://edmi.parliament.uk/EDMi/EDMDetails.aspx?EDMID=39136&SESSION=899. Ritrīven on 11 August 2010. 
  12. "UK Parliament Archives 2008-9". Archived from the original. You must specify the date the archive was made using the |archivedate= parameter. https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200809/cmhansrd/cmallfiles/mps/commons_hansard_564_os.html. Ritrīven on 11 August 2010. 
  13. "UK Parliament Archives 2009-10". Archived from the original. You must specify the date the archive was made using the |archivedate= parameter. https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200910/cmhansrd/cmallfiles/mps/commons_hansard_564_os.html. Ritrīven on 11 August 2010. 
  14. "Author profile: Rahul Verma". Archived from the original. You must specify the date the archive was made using the |archivedate= parameter. http://www.thehindu.com/profile/author/rahul-verma/. Ritrīven on 13 May 2017. 
  15. Nelson, Dean; Andrabi, Jalees (4 August 2009). "Chicken tikka masala debate grows as Indian chefs reprimand Scottish MPs over culinary origins". The Daily Telegraph (London). Archived from the original. You must specify the date the archive was made using the |archivedate= parameter. https://www.telegraph.co.uk/foodanddrink/5972643/Chicken-tikka-masala-row-grows-as-Indian-chefs-reprimand-Scottish-MPs-over-culinary-origins.html. Ritrīven on 28 April 2010. 
  16. Mannur, Anita (2009n). Culinary Fictions: Food in South Asian Diasporic Culture. Temple University Press, 3. ISBN 978-1-4399-0077-2. 
  17. Collingham, E. M. (2006n). Curry: A Tale of Cooks and Conquerors. Oxford; NY: Oxford University Press, 2. ISBN 0-19-517241-8. 
  18. Jo Monroe, Star of India: The Spicy Adventures of Curry (Wiley: 2005 Template:ISBN) pp. 136-137.
  19. Kumar, Rakesh (24 February 2007). "Tastes that travel". Chennai, India: Kasturi & Sons Ltd. Archived from the original. You must specify the date the archive was made using the |archivedate= parameter. http://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-features/tp-metroplus/tastes-that-travel/article2241239.ece. Ritrīven on 19 May 2017. 
  20. Aravind Adiga (20 March 2006). "The Spice of Life". Time. Archived from the original. You must specify the date the archive was made using the |archivedate= parameter. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1174750,00.html. Ritrīven on 1 June 2007. 
  21. "Stir-fry now Britain's most popular foreign dish". Daily Mirror. 21 January 2012. Archived from the original. You must specify the date the archive was made using the |archivedate= parameter. https://www.mirror.co.uk/news/uk-news/stir-fry-now-britains-most-popular-165120. Ritrīven on --. 
  22. Hills, Suzannah. "Vindawho? Chicken tikka masala knocked off top spot by Chinese stir-fry as Britain's favourite dish". Associated Newspapers. Archived from the original. You must specify the date the archive was made using the |archivedate= parameter. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2089796/Britains-favourite-dish-Chicken-tikka-masala-knocked-spot-Chinese-stir-fry.html. Ritrīven on 10 May 2015. 

Further readingEdit

  • Curry Club Tandoori and Tikka Dishes, Piatkus, London — Template:ISBN (1993)
  • Curry Club 100 Favourite Tandoori Recipes, Piatkus, London — Template:ISBN (1995)
  • India: Food & Cooking, New Holland, London — Template:ISBN (2007)
  • Collingham, Elizabeth M (2006n). Curry: A Tale of Cooks and Conquerors. Oxford University Press, 2–3. ISBN 0-19-517241-8. 

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